Copenhagen Economics is an expert driven consulting company built on a deep knowledge of applied economics. We believe sound economic analysis can equip decision makers with the hard facts and clear stories to make better choices for the benefit of society.
Sometimes our work resonates and has a direct impact on the public agenda. At other times, it contributes more subtly to the making of superior decisions within a company, organisation, or courtroom.
Every year, the work of our experts results in more than 200 reports, studies, and analyses. Most of them are published and available on our website.
Direct and indirect electrification from intermittent renewable energy sources are key pillars of the green transition. Yet, they pose challenges to the energy system and grid regulation schemes as we know them. Therefore, large-scale projects that produce and consume electricity even before entering the transmission and distribution grids hold a great opportunity for society to enable the renewable energy build-out that we need, without adding large capital costs on grid operators for grid build-out to transport and distribute energy.
We find, however, that existing grid tariffs are not fit for large, flexible consumers such as electrolysers, as they do not take into account the (limited) required additional grid capacity stemming from this type of consumers if allowed to be placed in co-location via direct lines between production and consumption of electricity.
We also find that all users could potentially gain from offering large, flexible consumers, like electrolysers, cost-reflective and capacity-based tariffs, which would even provide additional TSO revenue in the short to medium term. In the long term, capacity-based tariffs for all users would induce much more efficient use of the energy system and smoothen grid capacity demand during all hours of the day, which is exactly the outcome we want to limit peak demand - the true driver of grid costs.
For further information, please contact Managing Economist, Signe Rølmer Vejgaard.
The Nordic region is an attractive option for strengthening Europe’s external digital connectivity through submarine cables across the Arctic region. Low temperatures and ample access to renewable energy sources allow data centres to be more energy effective and emit less CO2 in the Nordic region than in other geographical locations in Europe. Additionally, we estimate that an Arctic cable could boost GDP in the Nordic region by more than EUR 1 billion annually.
However, barriers are in the way for Arctic cables to succeed; Submarine cables in the Arctic have not been done previously and the cable construction thus entails risk, the demand for traffic through new cables is uncertain, and some of the gains from increased connectivity will not accrue directly to investors but to the wider society instead. To avoid potential market failures, governments can support the development of submarine cable projects indirectly through research and education networks acting as anchor tenants, which would also benefit research and education institutions.
For further information, please contact Morten May Hansen, Senior Economist.
A recent Copenhagen Economics study finds that the total savings from parallel imports of pharmaceuticals in Denmark in 2021 amounted to DKK 740 million, based on data from Danish parallel traders. Since 2018, there has been an increase in savings of DKK 130 million, corresponding to 21%.
The practice of parallel imports of pharmaceuticals has taken place in Denmark and the rest of the EU since the 1970s. In 2021, parallel imports accounted for 16% of turnover in the Danish market for medicinal products.
For further information, please contact Senior Economist, Søren Brenøe.
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